Science (2015) Grade(s): 09-12 - Physical Science


Plan and carry out investigations (e.g., squeezing a balloon, placing a balloon on ice) to identify the relationships that exist among the pressure, volume, density, and temperature of a confined gas.

Unpacked Content

Scientific and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect


Students know:
  • Gases can be compressed very tightly or expanded to fill a very large space.
  • As the temperature of a gas increases, the gas particles move faster and hit the sides of their container more frequently.
  • As the temperature of a gas decreases, the gas particles move more slowly and hit the sides of their container less frequently.


Students are able to:
  • Plan and carry out investigations to determine the relationship of the variables: pressure, temperature, volume, and density.
  • Create graphical representations of data from the investigation.
  • Analyze and interpret data from the investigation.
  • Communicate information collect from the investigations.
  • Use safe lab procedures.


Students understand that:
  • The changes in volume, pressure and temperature of a gas demonstrate a pattern that can be related mathematically.
  • These relationships can be direct or indirect.


  • Pressure
  • Volume
  • Temperature
  • Density
  • Mass
  • Gas
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Control
  • Dependent variable
  • Independent variable
  • Direct relationship
  • Indirect relationship
  • Molecular-kinetic theory of matter
  • Heat vs. temperature
  • States of matter