• Complex inferences
  • Text structure
  • Text content
  • Comparison and contrast
  • Problem and solution
  • Cause and effect
  • Substantiated claim
  • Unsubstantiated claim
  • Evidence
  • Logical conclusions
  • Author's perspective


Students know:
  • Authors use particular text structures to indicate their perspective.
  • A text that follows a comparison and contrast structure will describe how two or more things are alike or different.
  • Problem and solution text structure describes a problem and how the problem was solved or could be solved.
  • Cause and effect text structure describes an event (the cause) and the consequence or result of the event (the effect).
  • Claim and evidence structure proposes a particular claim, then provides evidence to support the claim.
  • Substantiated claims will have relevant, credible supporting evidence, while unsubstantiated claims will not.
  • Inferences and conclusions can be drawn by analyzing and synthesizing information in text.


Students are able to:
  • Identify the structure and content of text.
  • Utilize text structure and content to make complex inferences and draw logical conclusions about an author's perspective.


Students understand that:
  • Authors choose to use specific content and format their text in a particular structure to demonstrate their perspective on a topic.